What is the difference between a directory and a file ?

A good administrator should have knowledge on what is a file system and how files are stored in file system. Having atleast some idea about these terms are helpful in restoring filesystem in emergency situations.
What is Directory ?

Directory is a collection of files stored as a group , say it is a group of files with single name.

A directory can be classified into two types

Root Directory : root is the parent of total directories , say main drive or main filesystem(/) is the root directory .

Sub directory : these are the directories that comes under the root directory in hierarchy , In general a directory within a director can be called as sub directory.


File Hierarchy

What is a File?

Files are collection of data items stored in a disk or it is a device which can store the information like data, music (mp3,ogg), photographs, movie, sound, book etc. It is like every thing you store in a system should be a file. Files are always associated with devices like hard disk ,floppy disk etc. File is the last object in your file system tree.

Different types of File Systems ?

Windows supports two file systems

FAT32 stands for File Allocation Table

NTFS stands for New Technology File system

LINUX supports different Filesystem including that windows support and

EXT stands for Extended Filesystem and there are 4 variations in it as of now

EXT1, EXT2, EXT3, and EXT4


Memory is intangible thing they are stored practically using bits of information. Shortly , memory is a group of binary variables. Inorder to store this binary information we need to follow certain rules to effectively use the storage device. So a Filesystem is a mechanism to organize , represent and retrieve data from a data storage device.

There are many concepts out here if we go in depth of how storage is actually taking place. Memory is divided into bits initially and again this bits are grouped into sectors, blocks, clusters, and disks. head is the pointer that reads a particular location of memory and there are many more terms to know like tracks, access time etc. I will go into depth of this topic in coming posts as of now just assume that these are some terms that are used in storing memory.

So , a File Systems implements an algorithm how to store this information in a data storage device. If you understand this terms in near posts you will gain in depth idea of how to recover data from a crashed device , how to clean up hard disk corrupted sectors and many more concepts.

Wait for next post :)